Footnotes to Chapter 8:

101 The Chemurgic Digest, May 30, 1942 & Nov. 15, 1944. Hemp Industry's Future.
102 Popular Mechanics. 1938. The Billion Dollar Crop.
103 The Winona Republican-Herald. December 31, 1937. 2 Hemp Processing Compnies. p. 3.
104 Garvan died of pneumonia following influenza. McMillan describes his death as "sudden." No one has suggested anything but natural causes. Newspapers of that year report an epidemic of deaths from this flu/pneumonia complex. Garvan's personality and influence had been crucial to the Chemurgic Movement, his passing was a set back.
105 USDA. 1937. Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, p. 7.
106 Musto, D. 1973. The American Disease: The Origins of Narcotic Control. Yale Univ. Press. p. 224.
107 Dillman, 1936, p. 779.
108 Founded March 9, 1931, in Minneapolis.
109 Eastman, p.100.
110 Recently, there have been attempts by law enforcement to have existing laws rewritten to make any part of the cannabis plant verboten. There was an initial success in Kentucky, but a recent move to change the Minnesota law failed. The Attorney General of Kentucky admitted that rendering such materials illegal was not the intent of the law. (G. Galbraith, pers. comm.)
111 Grinspoon, L. 1971. Marihuana Reconsidered. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Mass.
112 Subcommittee on Finance. US Senate. July 12, 1937. H.R. 6906. An act to impose an occupational excise tax upon certain dealers in marihuana, to impose a transfer tax on certain dealings in marihuana, and to safeguard the revenue therefrom by registry and recording. Subcommittee on H.R.6906. Prentiss M. Brown (Michigan), Chairman. Congressional Record.
113 Dewey, 1913, Plate XLII, Fig. 2.
114 Wright, p. 13.
115 Dempsey, J. M. 1975. Fiber Crops. The Univ. Presses of Florida. Gainsville.
116 Dillman, 1936, p. 761.
117 Broom-rape is a parasitic plant with a seed similar in size to hempseed which can become a problem in hemp fields. Hemp is actually a superior weed control agent.
118 Fiber types are high in cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid which is actually antagonistic to THC and has been shown to have medicinal effects for such conditions as epilepsy (Carlini, E.A., and J.A. Cunha. 1981. Hypnotic andAntiepileptic Effects of Cannabidiol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21: pp. 417S-427S.)
119 USDA. 1938. Bureau of Plant Industry, Annual Report, p. 7.
120 USDA. 1939. Bureau of Plant Industry, Annual Report, p. 9.
121 The proceedings of this conference were never published. However, R. J. Bonnie and C. H. Whitebread II preserved the transcript they found while researching their history of cannabis prohibition, The Marijuana Conviction. It is held in the University of Virginia Law School Library.
122 Marihuana Conference, p. 22.
123 Marihuana Conference, p134.
124 Mechoulam, R. 1968. Hashish XIII: On the nature of the Beam Test.Tetrahedron 24:5615-5624 .
125 Merlin, M. D. 1972. Man and Marijuana. Assoc. Univ. Presses. Cranbury, NJ.
126 Watt, George. 1889. Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. Calcutta 2:105.
127 Miller, R. L. The Question of Marijuana: Still Unanswered.----------------
128 Marihuana Conference, p. 21.
129 Marihuana Conference, p. 31.
130 Marihuana Conference, p. 45.
131 Popular Mechanics. 1938.
132 Marihuana Conference, p. 23.
133 Marihuana Conference, p. 24.
134 Marihuana Conference, p. 48
135 Quoted in Bonnie and Whitebread. 1972. The Marijuana Conviction. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville.
136 Bonnie and Whitebread, p. 220. The letter is hand written and "Mexico" is in parenthesis for unknown reasons. Further on in the letter its author refers to "this Mexican weed." It is possible the parentheses were added by someone else. In any case, the Mexican source was clearly indicated.
137 Bonnie and Whitebread, 1972. p. 220
138 Warmke, H .E. 1944. Use of the Killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in the Assay of Marihuana. J. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. Sci. Ed. 33:122-126.
139 Bredemann, G., F. Schwanitz, and R. Van Sengbusch. 1956 Problems of modern hemp breeding with particular reference to the breeding of varieties of hemp containing little or no hashish. Bull. Narcotics 3:31-34.
140 Agra Europe #1447. July 5, 1991.
141 Delta-9 tetrahydrocannibinol, the principal psychoactive component of hemp's complex biochemistry, identified in 1963.
142 DeMeijer, E.P.M., H. J. van der Kamp and F. A. van Eeuwijk. 1992. Characterization of Cannabis accessions with respect to other plant characters. Euphytica 62: 187-200.
143 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1993. OECD schemes for the varietal certification of seed moving in international trade: List of cultivars for certification, Cannabis sativa. OECD, Paris. The following cultivars are eligible for support payments in the UK: Carmognola; CS; Delta-Llosa; Delta-405; Fedora 19; Fedrina 74; Felina 34; Ferimon; Fibranova; Fibrimon 24; Fibrimon 56; Futura.
144 Small, E., H.D. Beckstead, and A. Chan. 1975. The evolution of cannabinoid phenotypes in Cannabis. Econ. Bot. 29(3): 219-232.
145 Clarke, R. C. 1981. Marijuana Botany. Ronin Publ. Berkeley, CA. Based on Small, E. and H. D. Beckstead. 1973. Cannabinoid phenotypes in Cannabis sativa. Nature 245:147-148.
146 Goldstein, A. 1994. Addiction: From Biology to Drug Policy. W. H. Freeman & Co. NY. p. 171.
147 Simmonds, N. W. 1984. The Evolution of Crop Plants: Hemp. Longman, London. p. 203.
148 DeMeijer, E.P.M. 1993. Hemp variations as pulp source researched in the Netherlands. Pulp and Paper, July: 41-43.
149 Clarke, R. C. and D. W. Pate. 1994. Medical marijuana. J. International Hemp Assoc. 1:9.
150 Dodge, C. A. 1895, p. 216.
151 In 1991, acreage and yields for hemp in Russia and eastern Europe were:
CountryHectares tons/hectare
Russia 60,000 4
Romania 24,000 4
Yugoslavia 700 8
Poland 2,500 4
Hungary 720 9
(H. Spelter, Forest Products Lab, Univ. of Wis., pers. comm.).
Food production has tended to displace fiber crops as a priority in these countries.